The problem was not only the deterioration of the business environment. In the early 1980s, the general agreement was clearly not as relevant to the realities of world trade as it was in the 1940s. First, world trade had become much more complex and important than 40 years earlier: the globalization of the global economy was underway, trade in services that are not covered by THE GATT rules was of great interest to a growing number of countries, and international investment had increased. The expansion of trade in services has also been closely linked to a further increase in world trade. In other respects, the GATT was found to be failing. For example, in the agriculture sector, the shortcomings of the multilateral system have been widely exploited and efforts to liberalize agricultural trade have failed. In the textile and clothing sector, an exception to the normal GATT disciplines was negotiated in the 1960s and early 1970s, leading to the multi-fibed regime. Even the institutional structure of the GATT and its dispute resolution system have raised concerns. A common market is a first step towards a single market and can be limited initially to a free trade area with relatively free trade in capital and services, but cannot be so advanced in reducing other trade barriers. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States that creates a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It replaced the free trade agreement between the United States and Canada. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was the first multilateral free trade agreement.
It first came into force in 1948 as an agreement between 23 countries and remained in force until 1995, when it joined 128 countries. It has been replaced by the World Trade Organization. After the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993, the ECE was renamed the European Community (EC) to reflect the fact that it covered a wider range of policies. It was also when the three European Communities, including the EC, together formed the first of the three pillars of the European Union (EU) that the Treaty also established. The EC existed in this form until it was abolished by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty, which merged the old EU pillars and provided that the EU would « replace and succeed the European Community ». The main objective of the EEC was to « preserve peace and freedom and lay the foundations for an ever closer union between the peoples of Europe, » as its preamble states. The need for balanced economic growth must be achieved: the GATT was created to establish rules, to end or limit the most costly and undesirable features of the pre-war protectionist period, namely quantitative barriers to trade, such as trade controls and quotas. The agreement also provided for a system for resolving trade disputes between nations and the framework allowed for a series of multilateral negotiations on the removal of customs barriers. The GATT was considered a major success in the post-war years. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is a port for a series of global trade negotiations that took place between 1947 and 1995 in a total of nine cycles.
The GATT was first conceived after the Allied victory in World War II at the 1947 United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment, in which the International Trade Organization (ITO) was one of the ideas proposed. It was hoped that the ITO would be led alongside the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). More than 50 nations negotiated the ITO and the organization of their constituent charter, but after the withdrawal of the United States, those negotiations failed.  However, this part of the result was not authorized by Congress and the U.S. selling price was not abolished until Congress passed the results of the Tokyo Round.